2 + 2 = 5: Worlds of Anti‑utopian and Dystopian Literature is based on the text of the dissertation Theory of Petrified Worlds on the Example of Anti‑Utopian and Dystopian Literature, where the author deals with anti‑utopian and dystopian literature in comparative perspective. First of all the book focuses on the theoretical background, including the historical mapping of previous research, the historical context of the emergence of the genres, including a deeper analysis of its beginnings, i.e. the development of utopian literature from Plato to William Morris and Herbert George Wells, than readers can find there the detail description of the emergence of anti‑utopian literature primarily as an opposition to utopian tendencies and its evolution into dystopia. A major part of the work deals with a specific semiotic analysis of the characteristic and constitutive features of the genres of anti‑ utopian and dystopian literature of the 20th and 21st centuries. In addition, an important part of the book is a terminological specification of the used and existing terms in the field of studies of utopian, anti‑utopian and dystopian literature.